Blood tests are a cornerstone of diagnostic and preventive healthcare in modern medicine. By diving into the complicated makeup of our blood, these tests provide essential insights into our overall health, aiding in the diagnosis of a wide range of medical disorders and monitoring treatment progress. Despite their critical relevance, blood tests are sometimes veiled in mystery, giving rise to a myriad of myths and misconceptions among the general public.
Understanding the Purpose of Blood Tests
Blood tests, also known as blood work or blood panels, provide valuable insights into the physiological processes occurring within our bodies.
One of the primary purposes of blood tests is to analyze the cellular composition of our blood, examining the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They also play an important role for evaluating the wellness of vital organs in the body. While blood tests are also useful in treating and diagnosing chronic illnesses such as diabetes, they offer helpful data on nutrient concentrations within the body, disclosing deficiencies in crucial vitamins and minerals.
8 Common Types of Blood Tests and Their Significance
Blood tests encompass an extensive variety of analyses, each targeted at offering specific data about multiple facets of a person’s health. Following are some of the most common blood tests used by medical practitioners to diagnose ailments.
1. Full Blood Count (FBC)
This is the most common type of blood test ordered by doctors, and it offers vital information on the number, types, and sizes of cells in your blood such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Healthcare practitioners use FBCs to diagnose anemia, infections, bleeding or clotting problems, exposure to toxic substances, response to certain treatments, vitamin or mineral deficiencies, and other blood-related illnesses by finding irregularities in these components.
Preparing for FBC
You don’t need to prepare specifically for FBC. It can be done any time.
2. Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
Also known as Chemistry Panel, Chem 7, and Electrolyte Panel, a BMP blood test offers data regarding the metabolism of your body, or how it utilises food to produce energy. It gives an overview of your kidney health, blood sugar levels, and important electrolyte levels such as potassium and sodium.
Your doctor may prescribe a BMP test if you visit them with certain aches and pains, as it helps them determine the underlying cause of your health issue. A BMP could also be performed in an emergency, prior to surgery, or as part of a routine checkup.
Preparing for BMP
You will usually have to fast for 8 hours before having a BMP.
3. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
The CMP test, which is the extended version of the BMP, is an effective tool that provides a panoramic view of various vital aspects of your health. By analyzing a variety of chemical markers present in your blood, the CMP provides invaluable insights into your body’s functioning, enabling medical professionals to make informed decisions regarding your care.
A CMP offers a holistic perspective that enables healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding your care. They can be recommended as a part of regular health checkups or to identify kidney and liver disorders if you doctor suspects you have any.
Preparing for CMP
You will usually have to fast for at least 8 hours before having a CMP.
4. Lipoprotein Panel (Lipid Profile)
Lipoprotein panel (lipid profile) is used to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease by testing cholesterol levels such as LDL, commonly known as ‘bad’ cholesterol, HDL, popularly known as ‘good’ cholesterol, and Triglycerides.
Your doctor may prescribe a lipid profile test if you are obese, not getting enough physical activity and prone to high blood pressure. If you have a first-degree relative who developed heart disease at an early age, it is wise to get a lipid profile test done at least once a year to keep track of your cholesterol levels.
Preparing for Lipoprotein Panel
You will usually have to fast for 8 to 12 hours before having a lipid profile test. Most people have the test in mornings so it doesn’t interfere with their meals.
5. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)
Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) indicates the average blood sugar (glucose) levels over past two or three months and is an important instrument in effectively diagnosing and managing type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.
Your doctor may recommend this test to diagnose diabetes if you are at a risk or have symptoms for type 2 diabetes or have prediabetes. It is also used to determine how well a person’s diabetes has been controlled over the past few months. Diabetes patients are advised to undergo this test every three months.
Preparing for HbA1c
No preparation is needed for this blood test.
6. Cardiac Biomarker Test
The diagnostic value of cardiac biomarker blood tests for conditions such as heart attacks and other heart-related emergencies is particularly strong. This test is also known as CK, CK-MB, Cardiac Troponin T, Troponin I, and Cardiac Enzymes.
When damaged, cardiac muscle cells release specific enzymes and proteins into the bloodstream. The detection of a rise in these enzymes (also known as biomarkers) can indicate ongoing damage to cardiac muscle. According to the issue you are having, the enzyme you need to get tested for will be decided by your physician.
Preparing for Cardiac Biomarker Test
No preparation is needed, but make sure your healthcare provider is aware of the medications, vitamins, supplements or even other medicinal herbs you are on.
7. C-Reactive Protein Test (CRP)
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) test is used to detect whether there is inflammation in your body. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver, and under normal circumstances, CRP levels in the bloodstream are low. If there is inflammation in the body, the liver releases more CRP into the bloodstream.
Your doctor will advise you to take a CRP test if you are showing symptoms of inflammation such as fever or chills, increased heart rate, rapid breathing, nausea, or vomiting.
Preparing for CRP Test
No special preparation is required for this test, but you should mention to your healthcare provider if you are on any medications because some medications can affect your test result.
8. Thyroid Blood Test (TSH Test)
Thyroid blood tests are used to determine thyroid health and diagnosing thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Thyroid blood are commonly known as TSH tests because they measure the level of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in your blood.
If you take prescription thyroid hormone medication due to hypothyroidism or because your thyroid has been removed, your doctor will advise you to monitor your thyroid hormone levels with TSH tests on a regular basis. Similarly, TSH tests are also used to monitor thyroid hormone levels after hyperthyroidism treatment.
Preparing for TSH Test
Interpreting Blood Test Results
Deciphering blood test results can be challenging because it requires an understanding of the values and what they mean. Every blood test result includes “reference ranges,” which indicate the usual values for each parameter. Results within these ranges are generally regarded as healthy, however those that deviate from the reference range may indicate potential health issues.
It is critical to consider blood test results in context, as a single isolated result may not provide a whole picture of a person’s health. To make accurate diagnoses and build specific treatment programmes, medical practitioners analyse a variety of factors, including the patient’s medical history, symptoms, and other test results.
There is no need to panic if you obtain abnormal blood test results. Your healthcare physician will most likely prescribe more tests or examinations to determine the underlying reason and plan an appropriate course of action.
At Forte Diagnostics Medical Laboratory, we understand the importance of blood tests used to determine various types of medical conditions that our patients have to go through. Our professional healthcare service providers, along with our visiting consultants, microbiologists, and pathologists are well-equipped to test, analyze, and report the findings of blood tests, so that our patients are completely at their peace of mind.
In conclusion, blood tests are vital procedures for assessing health and identifying medical issues. You can actively participate in your healthcare decisions and contribute to your general well-being if you grasp their goal, types, processes, and interpretation. Always remember that the best source of information and help regarding your blood test results is your doctor. You may live a better and more satisfying life by taking an active role in your health journey by taking control of it together with your healthcare providers.